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date: 23 September 2017

Digital Resources: FAMSI.org and the Beginnings of Digital Scholarship for the Ancient Americas

Summary and Keywords

Launched in 1997, FAMSI.org established itself as the leading digital platform for the promotion and dissemination of Mesoamerican scholarship to the widest possible audience. The online arm of the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc., a nonprofit pledged to foster increased understanding of ancient Mesoamerican cultures, FAMSI.org crosscut disciplinary divisions and facilitated communication between scholars in the United States and those in Latin America. The eight-member Board of Directors and its advisory committee ensured that the foundation would harness the spirit of generosity and creativity that characterized the early days of the Internet for the benefit of a likewise emergent discipline. As the Website developed, FAMSI sought partnerships with and contributions from institutions around the world in order to make educational resources publicly available. The Website hosts a remarkable amount of primary research material, including image databases, contemporary and historical indigenous-language dictionaries, ethnographic videos, maps, and an up-to-date, searchable subject-specific bibliography, all of which are available in both English and Spanish and accessible at no cost to visitors.

Between 1997 and 2006, the Website grew exponentially, but like many of its early counterparts, the site’s utility and navigability ultimately suffered as a result of the rapid development of new software and the obsolescence of existing digital platforms; searches became sluggish and unwieldy. While visitorship remained high for an academic site—over a million unique visitors a year—a 2012 survey indicated that scholars frequented only known parts of the site while novice users spent as little as a few minutes on the site. The global economic crisis of 2008 destabilized FAMSI’s funding, and in 2010 the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) assumed stewardship of the foundation as well as the Website. The museum began to maintain and review FAMSI.org, ultimately deciding to update and transform the Website into a new platform, AncientAmericas.org, which broadens the scope beyond that of Mesoamerica. FAMSI, with its dedication to research and online collaboration, became the principal resource for the research of ancient American cultures for both a scholarly and general audience beginning in the mid-1990s. Its enduring legacy is the spirit of interdisciplinary and international cooperation and generosity that it fostered.

Keywords: art of the Ancient Americas, FAMSI, Mesoamerica, history of archaeology, digital humanities, digital resources, metadata standards

Origins and the Development of the Digital Resource

The Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. (FAMSI) was organized in 1994. The foundation identified two primary objectives: first, to democratize the dissemination of Mesoamerican research so that it could be accessed easily by both specialists and the general public and, second, to foster interdisciplinary and cross-cultural collaboration among scholars on both sides of the border. During its apogee, 1994–2007, the foundation became one of the leading proponents of Mesoamerican research; it funded 445 projects and distributing $3.2 million. In 1996, two years after the foundation’s incorporation, its Advisory Board determined that in order to fulfill its mission to promote and disseminate Mesoamerican scholarship, transcend disciplinary and national borders, and reach the widest possible audience, FAMSI had to go online.

The birth of FAMSI coincided with the birth of the digital age: In 1995, only 46 percent of Americans had heard of the Internet, but by 1996 that number had risen to 86 percent.1 David Bearman wrote in a 1995 Archives and Museum Informatics journal article that the next decades would bring “a growing penetration of interactive, broadband services into homes, schools, and businesses and the emergence of a facility for information and entertainment of an importance equal to that of television today.”2 Like Bearman, the Advisory Board recognized that the imagined near future was imminent; the Internet would provide the means to disseminate resources and information to the widest possible audience. The minutes recorded during annual Board of Directors meetings, as well as Advisory Board meetings, indicate that several advisors were early supporters of FAMSI online: Linda Schele, renowned epigrapher and professor of art history and Latin American studies at the University of Texas, Austin; Richard Diehl, Olmec area archaeologist; and photographer Justin Kerr.

The development of the site did not gain momentum until late 1996 or early 1997, however. Schele argued that the reports submitted by grantees had to be disseminated, and what better way than via the World Wide Web? As she presciently stated in an Advisory Board meeting, “While many scholars might not have the equipment to download and print material from the web [now], they will have. And we need to make it available to them from the beginning.”3 A few advisors stalwartly championed paper publications firmly bound between two covers, but in the end the Board decided that reports would be published electronically.4 Ron Bishop, a research scientist for the Smithsonian Institution and a key advisor, further argued that FAMSI’s true contribution to the field would be as a dissemination center that could electronically relay information to students and scholars internationally.5

The Advisory Board, and Schele in particular, were aware of, and responding to, the emergent nature of Mesoamerican studies. The decipherment of Maya hieroglyphic writing in the 1960s represented a watershed moment for the field; the subsequent two decades saw the dramatic reevaluation of the ancient Maya civilization largely as a result of the collaborative efforts of numerous scholars who began to work together on deciphering texts.6 As Schele stated, “We have a wonderful opportunity to further democratize Mesoamerican Studies. I would have had no career without the banks of images provided to me by the few who had them. Harvard and Penn had a monopoly for years and years—being the only ones with access to the original materials and texts. But then the Xerox machine of the sixties made everything at least a little more democratic. Now with thousands and thousands of images on FAMSI’s website—just think about it.” 7 Schele, in other words, argued that FAMSI.org could facilitate the types of scholarly exchanges that had resulted in the epigraphic breakthroughs of the past fifteen years.

In 1997 FAMSI.org went live. The initial intention was to provide digital access to new scholarship produced by recipients of FAMSI grants, but the Advisory Board heeded Bishop’s earlier suggestion, and the Website ultimately grew into a clearinghouse of information on and about Mesoamerica. A handful of early Websites dedicated to Mesoamerican material already existed, including George Cowgill and Saburo Sugiyama’s Teotihuacan site, which published up-to-the-minute finds from the field and made available maps, archival material, and other articles related to Teotihuacan.8 As Bishop observed, “Academics generally have no idea what all is available through the Internet, thus part of FAMSI’s job will be to interact between the various domains—to take the responsibility of knowing what is available for Mesoamerican scholars and for sharing that knowledge.”9FAMSI.org would become an electronic repository, an academic hub for Mesoamerican scholars around the world.

Schele and Kerr, in particular, were instrumental in designing the site’s core offerings and realizing Lewis Ranieri’s desire to construct a virtual visual library. From the outset, FAMSI.org featured several image databases of Maya objects housed in both museum and private collections. Kerr, a well-known photographer, had devised an innovative method of shooting Maya cylinder vases, which produced a single rollout image of the vessel surface. With the help of his wife, Barbara, Kerr digitized his collection of images and made them available via FAMSI.org. The Kerr archive became one of the most valued resources on the site. The following year, Schele succumbed to cancer; she bequeathed her extensive collection of drawings, notes, and slides to the foundation. As a trained artist and epigrapher, Schele had produced thousands of drawings of inscribed monuments, architecture, object studies, and sketches. Students and colleagues volunteered to digitize and catalog the collection, which was made available the following year. John Montgomery, an archaeological illustrator, similarly donated his trove of drawings before his death in 2005; these were scanned and made available on the Website.

The last major component of the site imagined by the Board was an update of Mexican archaeologist Ignacio Bernal’s 1963 Bibliografia Mesoamericana (BM). Richard Diehl first proposed the project because Bernal’s volume stood as one of the most frequently consulted catalogs for pre-Columbian scholars.10 Compiling a searchable catalog of all works published from 1960 onward would be a daunting task, but it would be an invaluable tool for students and scholars alike. The BM launched under the supervisions of John Weeks from the University of Pennsylvania, who oversaw the project until 2007. Bibliographer Bruce Bachand continued the updates beginning in 2010, and by 2013 the bibliography included approximately 78,000 records. Bachand also undertook to clean up the bibliography’s metadata. While search engines such as Google Scholar, AnthroSource, and WorldCat.org provide contemporary scholars with reliable means for locating area-specific sources, no similar database existed in 1998; as a specialized bibliographic source, the BM crosscut all interdisciplinary borders and included citations from international scholars and publications.

Supporters and Funding

The Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. (FAMSI) came into being through the generosity of a single benefactor, Lewis Ranieri, a New York financier. From the outset, FAMSI sought to differentiate itself from other granting organizations. At every Board meeting, Ranieri reiterated that the goal of the foundation was to “make a difference”: to enact lasting change in the field of Mesoamerican studies.11 He challenged his advisors to define that difference, to concretize it into something tangible and intelligible. What is lacking in the field? Where could monies best be spent? As FAMSI.org took shape beginning in 1996, Ranieri advocated for it to become a central visual library and eschewed funding for new facilities or libraries in favor of online initiatives.12

The foundation had a single governing Board, an eight-person Board of Directors who remained the same throughout its fourteen-year history: Chairman and President Lewis Ranieri; Vice President Margaret Ranieri; Treasurer Elizabeth Barbera; Foundation Director Sandra Noble Bardsley, Ph.D.; and additional members Justin Kerr, Barbara Kerr, Dorie Reents‑Budet, and Marilyn Goldstein. As a corollary to the Board of Directors, the foundation included an interdisciplinary Advisory Board consisting of Mesoamerican scholars who met annually to evaluate grant submissions and award the funds, adding to FAMSI’s eventual success and lasting impact. Ron Bishop, Linda Schele, David Friedel, Michael Coe, Richard Diehl, Betty Benson, Mary Miller and Karl Taube all served as advisors. Schele, Friedel, Diehl, and Coe were frequent and particularly influential advisors.

The foundation and the Website shared a variable annual budget determined on a year-to-year or as-needed basis at the discretion of its benefactor. Although the meeting minutes from several years mention forming an endowment, no sustainable infrastructure was ever developed. The global financial crisis that began in 2008 destabilized the foundation’s funding; Ranieri decided to withdraw his support for the foundation, which depended on a yearly stipend. The last Board of Directors meeting took place in November 2007. While the foundation staff and Ranieri sought a way to maintain the Website operations, outstanding grantee reports continued to be received, translated, and posted, as were news and announcements; however, upgrades and updates eventually ceased.

Structure, Organization, and Functionality

FAMSI.org grew organically from the time of its launch in 1998 until its transfer to LACMA in 2010. Despite the changes to its Web design implemented during the twelve-year period, the site’s structure always reflected the foundation’s central principles: to provide funding and promote Mesoamerican projects, to disseminate scholarly research internationally, and to provide reliable information on Mesoamerica for the general public. In its original design the site exemplified the Web 1.0 functionality; its pages were HTML encoded and had to be amended manually. As the site evolved, its organization became more streamlined and responded to users’ needs; however, the growing number of resources and nonstandardized metadata eventually encumbered the site’s search capabilities.

The Website revolved around three key areas: grants, news and announcements, and scholarly and educational resources. Grants referred to the monies awarded by the foundation annually and provided visitors with information about its mission, the application procedure, the evaluation process, and the library and research facility, located in Crystal River, Florida, which housed an extensive library and collection. In the absence of any similar online resource and because of the quality of its content, FAMSI.org became a hub for news and announcements for the field. The latest discoveries, many funded by the foundation, upcoming conferences and exhibitions, and a list of degree programs were routinely updated in the news and announcements area of the site. All grantee reports, image databases, and digitized texts and resources of Maya hieroglyphic writing and other indigenous languages appeared under the resources section of the site, which grew more than any other area.

The earliest iterations of the landing page,13 circa 1998, featured thumbnail icons accompanied by hypertext announcing new findings and research reports. By 2000, the site was hosting three image databases, the Kerr photographs, and both the Schele and Montgomery drawings archive, as well as numerous grantee reports and regional maps.14 The amount of added content prompted a redesign and restructuring of the site, notably the addition of a navigational menu bar and site index. The menu bar listed the following topics: Foundation Overview, Grant Reports, Grant Recipients, Granting Facility, Research Facility, Conference, and Pre-Columbian Links. Clickable icons that functioned as shortcuts to resources such as the Schele drawings archive or Justin Kerr’s image database were added the following year, allowing frequent users to bypass content intended for a general audience; as more contributions were received, the site added more icons.

The last major redesign took place in 2003:15 A menu bar appeared across the top of the page and presented streamlined categories—New, Funding, Research, Maya Writing, and Maps—each of which included dropdown menus. The new graphical hierarchy reflected awareness of the developing design standards and facilitated users’ navigation of the site.16 Nested under Resources, for example, appeared Drawings, which included the Schele and Montgomery drawings; Photographs, of sites and objects by Justin Kerr and Linda Schele; a Videos category, which housed ethnographic videos of Maya village life, as well as a narrated tour of the Piedras Negras site; Bibliographies linked to Bernal’s Mesoamerican bibliography, as well as an Osteology reference list; Flora and Fauna; Dictionaries for indigenous languages; a 3D Imaging Project; For Teachers, curriculum guides for K–12 teachers; and Terminology. The Writing section gathered all materials related to indigenous script: Maya syllabaries, indigenous-language dictionaries, Zapotec writing resources, and digitized versions of pictorial codices.

Scholars began to send in valuable but unsolicited submissions. Dissertations and Master’s theses arrived, as did unpublished manuscripts. FAMSI.org grew into a clearinghouse of material. In the end, FAMSI had two identities: as a grantor and as a reliable source for information on ancient Mesoamerica.

Content and Coverage

FAMSI.org functioned as an online platform and access point to literary and visual resources of Mesoamerican art, archaeology, and culture. Mesoamerica, a cultural and geographic area first defined by Paul Kirchhoff in 1943, encompasses present-day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Kirchhoff argued that the indigenous groups inhabiting the area before the arrival of the Spanish shared notable cultural traits including cosmology, a divinatory calendar, and the development of systems of visual communication. This designation established a clear boundary for area coverage. Proposals for projects in Nicaragua, Panama, and the American Southwest, for example, fell beyond the Mesoamerican borders. Eventually, the site did sponsor several projects further afield, such as dates of Nazca imagery.17

The Website, like the foundation, espoused an interdisciplinary approach, providing access to resources from the fields of art history, archaeology, anthropology, epigraphy and linguistics, ethnography, history, natural history and science, physical anthropology, and sociology. The Research category provided access to grantee reports, a searchable bibliography of Mesoamericana, the image databases, and digitized research material. Because of the number of Maya specialists on FAMSI’s board, the site featured more Maya-related material; however contributions by such scholars as Javier Urcid and Adam Sellen provided invaluable information on Zapotec communities of southern Mexico. Sellen’s database of Zapotec urns from international collections remains an indispensable tool.18FAMSI.org also included unusual research tools, such as a transcription of History of the Mexicans as Told by Their Paintings. An English translation of a 16th-century text better known as Historia de los mexicanos por sus pinturas, the manuscript was said to have been based on an indigenous pictorial codex. The transcription by Alec Christensen preserves the original orthography and grammatical inconsistencies of Phillip’s translation, which in turn preserved the errors and inconsistencies of the 16th-century original; these errata, as stated by Christensen, were corrected by the most popular edition of the text published by Angel María Garibay in 1965.19 In other words, the transcription, while imperfect, made available to scholars a passable copy of the original.

Sandra Noble, director of FAMSI, formed national and international partnerships that could augment FAMSI’s existing resources and expand beyond the ancient Maya focus of the Schele and Kerr databases. The Austrian publishing house, Akademische Druck from Graz, published meticulous facsimiles of several 16th-century pictorial manuscripts, which were used widely by scholars. Graz provided high resolution digital images of sixteen codices from the Aztec, Mixtec, and Maya regions at no cost to the user.20 These screenfold, painted manuscripts recorded historical and genealogical narratives, divination calendars, and origin stories. Few native sources survived the vehement extirpation campaign carried out by mendicant orders of the Catholic Church; thus these sixteen codices stood as one of the remaining sources of indigenous knowledge. Most of the codices belonged to European collections, and due to their inherent fragility were difficult to access. Akademische Druck facsimiles thus constituted essential research tools for scholars. FAMSI.org presented each codex in a mosaic format, with thumbnail images of each page, and allowed the user to see the entire manuscript at a glance. Users could click on the page of interest and look at the individual pages and then return to the main page. A partnership with John Weeks and University of Pennsylvania libraries facilitated the digitization of dozens of colonial-era as well as contemporary indigenous-language dictionaries, essential tools for epigraphers, linguists, and anthropologists.21

While scholarly material remained FAMSI.org’s main focus, Richard Diehl, an early champion of the site, advocated for remembering the novice user, noting that there is a “much bigger world” that could be interested. Noble, a former teacher, commissioned scholars to contribute resources appropriate for a K–12 audience. John Pohl’s Mesoamerica, for example, provides a general introduction to the area through maps, short explanatory texts, and images of archaeological sites, monuments, and objects. FAMSI.org also posted curriculum guides and teacher resources on Mesoamerica.

By 2000, the foundation was taking steps to fully translate the Website and its resources into Spanish, including the field reports submitted as part of each grant awarded. The aim was to increase the foundation’s visibility in Latin America and foster cross-cultural exchange among pre-Columbian scholars. By 2005, the foundation was receiving half of its grant proposals from Latin America, and 45 percent of the site’s visitors were coming from Spanish-language browsers.

Future Directions

As a result of the foundation’s financial difficulties, Virginia Fields, LACMA’s Senior Curator for Art of the Ancient Americas, worked with Noble to find a new home for the website. Fields successfully convinced the museum to steward the site and in 2010 LACMA assumed responsibility for the foundation as well as the Website. Initially, LACMA conducted a year-long review of the site and its architecture while it continued to maintain and update FAMSI.org. Visitor surveys in 2012 provided insight as to who was visiting the site and what users most valued. FAMSI was receiving just under a million unique visitors a year, 47 percent by way of predominantly English-language browsers and 48 percent from predominantly Spanish-language browsers. Analysis conducted by Amy Heibel indicated that visitors could be divided into two distinct categories: novices driven to the site by organic searches via keywords, such as “map of Mexico” or “Mayan calendar,” and a scholarly audience that went directly to favorite resources.

Because of the variety of file formats hosted on the site, the nonstandardized metadata, and the site’s outdated architecture, LACMA’s team—Amy Heibel, Victoria Lyall, and Tomas García—decided to design a new platform that would meet contemporary standards of digitization and metadata. The platform, AncientAmericas.org, employs a flexible Drupal architecture that allows for viewing on mobile devices as well as desktops. Furthermore the site broadens the scope of content beyond Mesoamerica and embraces the whole of the Americas.

During the course of a year and a half, the team, led by Rights and Reproductions specialist Piper Severance, renegotiated copyright and licensing agreements pertaining to many of the visual resources. Image databases such as the Schele drawings and several of the codices were rescanned and recataloged to meet contemporary standards of digitization, as well as to improve searchability and discoverability by contemporary Web browsers.22

Discussion of Related Research Tools

Is there a place in today’s digital landscape for sites like FAMSI.org, centralized clearinghouses or repositories for primary research material? The growing awareness of the importance of an online presence has prompted cultural heritage institutions and scholars themselves to take control of their material. A number of institutions have invested in digitizing their public domain primary-source material. The British Museum, for example, now provides high-resolution scans of the original Codex Zouche-Nuttall, a pre-Columbian painted manuscript housed in their collection.23 Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) digitized many of the codices in their archives and libraries and launched a new Website in March 2016 that provides free high-resolution images of the codices as well as interpretive material on the works and their long history of study.24

Museums at home and abroad have augmented their collections online, publishing substantial write-ups, good-quality images, and provenance information. Museum of Fine Arts Boston collections online include extensive information on each of its Maya vases, thanks to the work of guest curator Dorie Reents-Budet.25The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Timeline of Art History26 and its online catalog27 similarly provide substantial information on its collection. In some cases, such as Lima’s Museo Larco, a login for scholars allows power users to add additional comments and observations for objects of interest.28 The Museo Nacional de Antropología (MNA) in Mexico29 and the Museo de Arte de Lima (MALI)30 in Peru launched robust online collections within the last three years. On a more individual level, scholarly blogs penned by specialists provide a platform for a faster, dynamic, and informal means of disseminating ideas and new discoveries, or for exchanging thoughts on persistent questions. The Maya Decipherment Blog written by David Stuart, with contributions by leading epigraphers such as Stephen Houston, Simon Martin, Karl Taube, Alexandre Tokovinine, and Marc Zender, publishes epigraphic discoveries, mysteries, and observations.

Institutions themselves have launched their own blogs to publicize their holdings and disseminate new discoveries faster. The Metropolitan Museum of Art blogs and online features—82nd and Fifth, MetCollects, One Met Many Worlds, and Now at the Met—has enhanced the museum’s online presence and its ability to promote its collection, as well as featuring the personnel behind the scenes. LACMA’s blog Unframed similarly publishes new acquisitions, highlights from the collection, and research discoveries.

Digitization efforts, once touted as the principle means of democratizing information,31 have proven expensive; copyright restrictions and lack of established standards for format and metadata have limited projects’ success and discoverability.32 Furthermore, institutions have generally underestimated the human labor required in such endeavors. As Jane Finnis observes, “many cultural and heritage organizations are ‘struggling to embrace the new reality of audience behavior, let alone go boldly into a future of big data, the semantic web, and seamless participation.’”33 Users have become accustomed to interacting with Web content through comments, tagging, and reuse of images, and cultural heritage institutions must find ways to accommodate a new relationship with its users.34

Should Websites created in the spirit of FAMSI then position themselves as aggregators, rather than clearinghouses or digital libraries? The Website Mesoweb, for example, provides free access to significant image databases of Maya material, as well as pdfs of important scholarly articles that are now in the public domain. The site, similar to FAMSI.org, strives to disseminate scholarly information on the ancient Maya to the widest possible audience. While it continues to be an important resource, the site does not meet current standards of interactivity. The ordering of information via the menu sidebar corresponds to earlier standards of graphic design.

For projects to realize the benefits of digitization, Melissa Terras argues, they must, “enable and promote reuse in an adequate format, in high-enough digital quality, and with an open and progressive attitude to what people, organizations and industries are allowed to do with that content once they have access to it.”35 Such progressive attitudes are embodied by the Open Access Movement (OAM), which promotes public access to cultural heritage materials. Europeana, a coordinated effort among European Union cultural institutions, functions as a portal to digital collections throughout the EU and provides an excellent model. Rather than act as a repository, Europeana works with institutions directly as well as with aggregators; the site acts as a hub and ensures that digital collections adhere to established standards. It also ensures the discoverability of digital collections, regardless of the size of the institution.

FAMSI’s dedication to research and online collaboration made it the principal resource for the research of ancient American cultures for both scholarly and general audiences. Its enduring legacy is the spirit of interdisciplinary and international cooperation and the generosity it fostered.

Acknowledgments

This research benefited from the contribution of many participants, but most notably former and current members of the LACMA staff who generously assisted with the research: Amy Crum, Alexis Curry, Jessica Gambling, Tomas Garcia, Michael Govan, Amy Heibel, Laura Leaper, Diana Magaloni, Nancy Thomas. Former FAMSI director Sandra Noble provided invaluable input and critiques. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the unflagging generosity and vision of Virginia Fields, who recognized the inestimable worth of FAMSI.org and the foresight of its founders.

Further Reading

Brenner, Sam. “Reconsidering Searching and Browsing on the Cooper Hewitt’s Collections Website.” MW2015: Museums and the Web 2015, February 1, 2015.Find this resource:

Chun, Susan, et al. “Open Source, Open Access: New Models for Museums,” in The Digital Museum: A Think Guide. Edited by Herminia Din and Phyllis Hecht, 135–145. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums, 2007.Find this resource:

Bernal, Ignacio. Bibliografía de arqueologÍa y etnografía Mesoamericana y Norte de México: 1514–1960. Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, 1962.Find this resource:

Doctorow, Cory. “GLAM and the Free World.” In Reprogram: Technology, Innovation and Culture in A New Era of Museums. Edited by Luis Marcelo Mendes, 77–95. Rio de Janeiro: IMA Editorial, 2016.Find this resource:

Drucker, Johanna. “Interface and Interpretation.” In Graphesis: Visual Forms of Knowledge Production, 138–178. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014.Find this resource:

Garibay, Angel María and Pedro Ponce de León. Teogonía e historia de los mexicanos: tres opúsculos del siglo XVI. Mexico: Editorial Porrúa, 1965.Find this resource:

Lawless, Seamus, Owen Conlan, and Cormac Hampson. “Tailoring Access to Content.” In A Companion to Digital Humanities. Edited by Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens, and John Unsworth, 2d ed., 171–184. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016.Find this resource:

MacArthur, Matthew. “Can Museums Allow Online Users to Become Participants?” In The Digital Museum: A Think Guide. Edited by Herminia Din and Phyllis Hecht, 57–66. Washington, DC: American Association of Museums, 2007.Find this resource:

Ridge, Mia. “From Tagging to Theorizing: Deepening Engagement with Cultural Heritage Through Crowdsourcing.” Curator 56 (2013): 435–450.Find this resource:

Walsh, David, and Mark M. Hall. “Just Looking Around: Supporting Casual Users’ Initial Encounters with Digital Cultural Heritage.” In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Supporting Complex Search Tasks co-located with the 37th European Conference on Information Retrieval (ECIR 2015). Vienna, 2015.Find this resource:

Notes:

(1.) Steve Coffey, as cited by Farhad Manjoo, “Jurassic Web,” Slate.com, February 2009.

(2.) David Bearman, “Standards for Networked Cultural Heritage,” Archives and Museum Informatics 9.3, in Museums in a Digital Age, ed. Ross Parry, 48–63 (London: Routledge 2010), 48.

(3.) Linda Schele, Minutes, FAMSI Board of Directors Meeting, November 16, 1996, Vol. 1, 1994–1997. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles (LACMA), Los Angeles, CA.

(4.) Sandra Noble Bardsley, October 14, 1996, ibid.

(5.) Ron Bishop. November 16, 1996, ibid.

(6.) Michael Coe, Breaking the Maya Code (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1992).

(7.) Schele, November 16, 1996, FAMSI Board of Director Meeting Minutes, Vol. 1, 1994–1997, in which she referenced Penn and Harvard.

(8.) Schele, November 16, 1996, FAMSI Board of Director Meeting Minutes, 1994–2007, Vol. 1.

(9.) Bishop, November 16, 1996, ibid.

(10.) Richard Diehl. Minutes, FAMSI Board of Directors Meeting, February 17, 1998, Vol. 2, 1998–2000, LACMA.

(11.) Lewis Ranieri, Minutes, FAMSI Board of Directors Meeting, October 14, 1996, Vol. 1, 1994–1997, LACMA.

(13.) “famsi.org,” Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. (FAMSI), last modified May 24, 1998. Access provided by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

(14.) “famsi.org,” FAMSI, last modified May 10, 2000. Access provided by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

(15.) “www.famsi.org,” FAMSI, last modified October 10, 2003. Access provided by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.

(16.) Johanna Drucker, “Graphical Approaches to the Digital Humanities,” in A New Companion to Digital Humanities, eds. Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens, and John Unsworth, 243, 238–250 (Malden, MA: Wiley and Blackwell, 2016).

(17.) Christine Clados, “Nazca Imagery,” FAMSI.

(18.) “Zapotec Effigy Urns,” FAMSI.

(19.) Garibay, Angel María and Pedro Ponce de León. Teogonía e historia de los mexicanos. Mexico: editorial Porrúa, 1965.

(20.) “Graz Codices,” FAMSI.

(21.) “Dictionaries,” FAMSI.

(22.) “Collections,” Ancient Americas at LACMA.

(23.) “Codex Zouche-Nuttall, The British Museum.

(24.) “Codices,” Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia.

(25.) “Collections Search,” Museum of Fine Arts Boston.

(26.) “Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History,” Metropolitan Museum of Art.

(27.) “Collections Online,” Metropolitan Museum of Art.

(28.) “Catálogo en linea,” Museo Larco.

(29.) “Catálogo en linea,” Museo Nacional de Antropología.

(30.) “Colección virtual,” Museo de Arte de Lima.

(31.) Andrea Sartori, “Towards an Intellectual History of Digitization: Myths, Dystopias, and Discursive Shifts in Museum Computing” Digital Scholarship in the Humanities 31.2 (June 1, 2016): 428–440.

(32.) Bearman, “Standards for Networked Cultural Heritage,” in Museums in a Digital Age, ed. Ross Parry, 51, 48–63 (London: Routledge, 2010).

(33.) Jane Finnis, as cited in Melissa Terras, “Opening Access to Collections: The Making and Using of Open Digitised Cultural Content,” Online Information Review 395 (2015): 737.

(34.) Merete Seterhoff, “This Belongs to You,” in Reprogram: Technology, Innovation and Culture in a New Era of Museums, ed. Luis Marcelo Mendes (Rio de Janeiro: IMA Editorial), 157–181.

(35.) Terras, “Opening Access to Collections,” 737.