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The Life, Myth, and Commemoration of Benito Juárez  

Thomas Benjamin

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Benito Pablo Juárez Garcia (b. San Pablo Guelatao, Oaxaca, March 21, 1806; d. Mexico City, July 18, 1872) was one of the greatest (and most controversial) statesmen in Mexican history. ... More

Gabriel García Moreno, Conservative President of Ecuador  

Peter V. N. Henderson

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Ecuador’s Gabriel García Moreno was one of the preeminent South American conservative politicians of the early national period. His historical notoriety rests in large measure on two ... More

War and Peace between Mexico and the United States in the 18th and 19th Centuries  

Josefina Zoraida Vázquez

Online publication date:
May 2018
The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) formed the background for independence movements in the Americas. Great Britain increased its colonial land and was forced to make reforms in order to ... More

The Reforma Period in Mexico  

Paul Vanderwood and Robert Weis

Online publication date:
May 2018
By revealing the weaknesses of its political system and the fragmentation of its social fabric, Mexico’s devastating loss to the United States in 1848 forced a reexamination of the ... More

Liberalism in the Spanish Atlantic  

Roberto Breña

The role that liberals and liberalism played from the beginning of the crisis hispánica of 1808 until the death of Simón Bolívar in 1830 can be separated for analytical purposes in two ... More

Benito Juárez and Liberalism  

Guy Thomson

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Benito Juárez was born on March 21, 1806, in San Pablo Guelatao, a Zapotec-speaking hamlet in Sierra de Ixtlán (renamed the Sierra de Juárez on July 30, 1857) in Mexico’s southeastern ... More

Political Prefects: The Regional Political Bosses of Mexico  

Romana Gloria Falcón Vega

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
During the formation of the Mexican nation, jefaturas políticas, or prefectures, as they will be called generically in this article, were basic institutions (1812–1917) for centralizing ... More

The French Intervention in Mexico and the Empire of Maximilian and Carlota  

Luz María Hernández-Sáenz

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
In 1861, Spanish, British, and French forces all landed in Veracruz to collect the debts Mexico owed them. After two months, the Spanish and British representatives reached an agreement ... More

Mexico’s First Decades of Independence  

Christon I. Archer and Stephen B. Neufeld

By 1821, a decade of bloody warfare had fragmented the viceroyalty of New Spain, divided the population into hostile factions of patriots and royalists, and intensified old hatreds among ... More

Cultural Institutions of the Brazilian Empire  

Lilia Katri Moritz Schwarcz

This article provides a larger panorama of the cultural politics of the Brazilian Empire during the 19th century and following the long Second Reign of Pedro II. The central figure of the ... More

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