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The United States and the 1964 Brazilian Military Coup  

Matias Spektor

The John F. Kennedy administration took a bet on the incoming president of Brazil, João Goulart, as he took office on September 8, 1961. Goulart was not a radical socialist, but his ... More

The Public Sphere in Mexico since the Mid-20th Century  

Vanessa Freije

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
At midcentury, the expansion of a middle class, rapid urbanization, and rising literacy rates transformed Mexico’s public sphere. Available reading material and access to television ... More

The Incas of the Andes  

Susan Elizabeth Ramirez

This entry will briefly review the history of the Inca (also Inka) Empire, called by the Andeans themselves “Tawantinsuyu,” referring to its four parts: the Chinchaysuyu, the Antisuyu, the ... More

Brazil—The Country of Football  

Bernardo Buarque de Hollanda

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The text discusses the construction of the image of “country of football,” associated with Brazil during the second half of the 20th century, based on the performance of the Brazil squad ... More

The Brazilian Military Regime, 1964–1985  

Marcos Napolitano

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Since its establishment in 1889, the history of the Brazilian republic was marked by the centrality of the armed forces, particularly the army, in political life. But between 1964 and ... More

Atrocity, Race, and Region in the Early Haitian Revolution: The Fond d’Icaque Rising  

David Geggus

Set within a larger analysis of class relations in the Haitian Revolution, this is a microhistory that intersects with several important themes in the revolution: rumor, atrocity, the ... More

Transatlantic Opera in Spain and the New World in the 17th and Early 18th Centuries  

Chad M. Gasta

Opera was performed in the Spanish-speaking New World colonies almost a century before what later would become the United States. The first operas staged in the Spanish colonies were ... More

Revolutionary Influences on Genre Cinema in Mexico  

Jennifer L. Jenkins

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The visual and technical culture of the Mexican Revolution shaped and was shaped by cinematic innovation in newsreel and fiction filmmaking, which evolved simultaneously with those social ... More

Pedro Infante and the Mexican Imagination  

Sal Acosta

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Pedro Infante (1917–1957) remains one of Mexico’s most beloved entertainers of all time. His films and songs, his life story and his charm, but also his death and funeral and the ... More

The Mexico that Spain Encountered  

Susan Schroeder

The Spaniards had little idea of what to expect when they set foot in North America. Mexico, as the region is known today, was in the 16th century a vast territory with a grand history. ... More

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