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Aztec Apocalypse, 1519–1521  

Ross Hassig

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
The Conquest of Mexico is typically explained in terms of European military superiority, and although this offered an advantage to the forces arrayed against the Aztecs, it was merely part ... More

The Colonial Mosaic of Indigenous New Spain, 1519–1821  

Susan Kellogg

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
From a geographically, environmentally, linguistically, and ethnically highly variable Mesoamerica, Spain created a core region within her American territories. But for New Spain’s ... More

The Incas of the Andes  

Susan Elizabeth Ramirez

This entry will briefly review the history of the Inca (also Inka) Empire, called by the Andeans themselves “Tawantinsuyu,” referring to its four parts: the Chinchaysuyu, the Antisuyu, the ... More

The Mexico that Spain Encountered  

Susan Schroeder

The Spaniards had little idea of what to expect when they set foot in North America. Mexico, as the region is known today, was in the 16th century a vast territory with a grand history. ... More

Rediscovering the Aztecs and Mayas: Field Exploration, Archaeological Exhibits, and National Museums  

Kevin M. Gosner

In the last decades of the 18th century, with the visit in 1784 of José Antonio Calderón to the Maya ruins at Palenque and the discovery in 1790 of the statue of Coatlicue and the Stone of ... More

Rural Indians and Technological Innovation, From the Chinampas of Xochimilco and Beyond  

Richard Conway

When the anthropologist Paul Kirchhoff proposed a new definition of Mesoamerica in a landmark study from 1943, the first common characteristics he identified were technological and ... More

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